Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Placebo Effect History, Biology, And Ethics

The term â€Å"placebo effect† has been defined in many forms since the early Biblical era. According to Dr. Patrick Lemoine, author of, â€Å"The Placebo Effect: History, Biology, and Ethics,† stated that the term â€Å"placebo effect† was actually derived from a mistake made from the translation of the Bible into Latin by a gentleman whose name was Jerome (Lemoine). During the early parts of history and when the Bible was in the midst of being translated, Psalms 116:9, was written as Placebo Domino, meaning â€Å"I shall please the Lord,† instead of, Ambulabo coram Domino, meaning â€Å"I shall walk before the Lord† (Lemoine). Families of the 13th century, during the time of bereaving for a lost loved one, would be found chanting this verse. They called it the Office of the Dead and would chant this Psalm over and over again, while in a praying circle, and in mourning for the lost loved one (Lemoine). During the 16th century, the term was changed somewhat, and was used as form of confusion for the people who were claimed to have been possessed. At this time it was called the â€Å"placebo relic† (Lemoine). When a person was found to have been so-called possessed, they would be given false relics, or something to have been claimed that belonged to a saint or someone who was seen in reverence and honor from an earlier time of history. The possessed person would than act as if it really did belong to this saint or reverenced person, and then would go into seizure like convulsions as if they were shakingShow MoreRelatedMad Americ Bad Science, Bad Medicine, And The Enduring Mistreatment Of The Mentally Ill1472 Words   |  6 PagesMentally Ill. Mad in America was written by Robert Whitaker, a medical journalist, whose primary objective when authoring this book was to examine the types of psychiatric methods used for treating mental illness throughout American history, as well as their ethics and safety. His book is broken up into four different sections, each covering a certain timeframe. Part one spans over the years 1750-1900, and elaborates on the developments of varying treatments that were administered to mental patientsRead MoreEffectiveness Of Placebo And Treatment3833 Words   |  16 Pagespublished to purpose the effectiveness of placebo on analgesia, with various theories supporting the case. Although the literatures are in general agreement on placebo analgesia there is some disagreement to the mechanism of pain relief. The various theories that will be looked at are expectation-activated opioid system, condition activated specific subsystems and doctor-patient relationship. The primary focus of the paper is neurobiological effect of placebo analgesia in which it is key to rememberRead More Ethics and Medical Practice Essay example4853 Words   |  20 PagesEthics and Medical Practice Since Alasdair MacIntyres landmark book, After Virtue, there has been renewed interest in the role of the virtues in the moral life and attention paid to reappropriating the Aristotelian notion of a practice. (1) Recent reappropriations of the virtues and virtue theory in medical ethics have contributed to conceiving more adequately the nature of good medicine. In this paper, I wish to explore some of these insights and the special relevance the notion of a practiceRead MoreObstetric Cholestasis3040 Words   |  13 Pages2003).Evidence to support a genetic link includes a high prevalence amongst Chilean and Scandinavian women (Bruce and Watson 2007).Two of Jacinta’s sisters suffered with OC during their pregnancies and indeed genetic studies have discovered a family history in 33-50% of women diagnosed with OC (Dixon and Williamson, 2006).There have also been suggestions of an autosomomal dominant inheritance pattern (Fagan 2000,Kelly and Nelson-Piercy , 2000). During pregnancy higher levels of oestrogen and progesteroneRead MoreThe Old Style Of Medicine3112 Words   |  13 Pagesnon-scientific approach to the unwell, disregarding traditional diagnostic categories and concentrating on enhancing subjective comfort and well-being, but remaining oblivious to the organic substrate of disease (Henrich, 2005). This leads to questionable ethics in terms of false hopes and lost opportunities for effective therapy in the medical field. Today’s advancements in the field of medicine have led to its important development from the curative stage to the preventive stage. There is more collectiveRead MorePsychology Workbook Essay22836 Words   |  92 Pagesobservation( researchers can have more control.) case study-   - An in-depth study of one person. Much of Freuds work and theories were developed through individual case studies. In a case study, nearly every aspect of the subjects life and history is analyzed to seek patterns and causes for behavior.  an in depth study of one or a few participants consisting of information gathered by observation, interview,or psychological testing to provide a description of behaviour or disorder survey  -usingRead MoreApproaches to Organisation and Management19498 Words   |  78 Pagesââ€"  Ã‚  Ã‚  It  helps  to  view  the  interrelationships  between  the  development  of  theory,  behaviour  in organisations  and  management  practice. ââ€"  Ã‚  Ã‚  An  understanding  of  the  development  of  management  thinking  helps  in  understanding principles  underlying  the  process  of  management. ââ€"  Ã‚  Ã‚  Knowledge  of  the  history  helps  in  understanding  the  nature  of  management  and  organ- isational  behaviour  and  reasons  for  the  attention  given  to  main  topic  areas. ââ€"  Ã‚  Ã‚  Many  of  the  earlier  ideas  are  of  continuing  importance  to  the  manager  and  later  ideas  on management  tend  to  incorporate  earlier  ideas  and  conclusionsRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 PagesLogical Consequences and Counterexamples ..................................................... 361 3-Valued Logic................................................................................................................................ 362 History of Sentential Logic ........................................................................................................... 367 Review of Major Points ..........................................................................................Read MoreGsk Annual Report 2010135604 Words   |  543 Pagesaim of enhancing returns to our shareholders and improving the lives of patients and consumers. To achieve this we have substantially re-engineered GSK’s business through major restructuring and a more rigorous approach to capital allocation. The effects of these changes in 2010 were masked to some degree by speciï ¬ c events. Reported sales, for example, were impacted by generic competition to Valtrex, and reduced sales from Avandia and pandemic related products. Meanwhile earnings were impacted by

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Slavery in America - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1178 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/05/13 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Slavery Essay Did you like this example? Â  Slavery has played various roles in different societies all over the world, but slavery was never as abused and manipulated as it was in America. Slavery has been a part of societies even before it came to America, but American colonization and greed for profit took priority over human rights. Slavery was different for every region of colonization in America. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Slavery in America" essay for you Create order Though the underlying idea of it was all the same, the different governments took slavery to new levels of torture and abuse. The main countries that colonized America were Britain, French, Spanish, and Dutch. Since these are all different groups with different ways of living, the way they used slavery was different as well. With the new found abuse of slavery came all sorts of ways to manipulate and take advantage of slaves, mainly by creating laws that limited what they could do, especially limiting how they could obtain their freedom. Every country that colonized America used slaves in some way or another. One of these countries was the Netherlands. Dutch colonization took place mainly in present day New York. The Dutch interest in slaves took place when settlers started up farms on the Hudson River. After this, slavery took off, for a little while at least. Until the mid-1600s, slaves were not expected to serve for their whole life. However, after slavery became more popular in the region, it became acceptable for white farmer to purchase African slaves in exchange for a life time of servitude. This would all change though because Britain took over this Dutch colony around 1664. A second minor country that colonized America was France. France had control of Louisiana, parts of Canada, and parts of Inland America. In Louisiana, settlers started tobacco and indigo farms. These farms then called for slaves to work the fields. Slaves in Louisiana included Africans and Indians. One of the many laws in place in Louisiana was that children were born into slavery if their mother was a slave. This was a very common law throughout all of colonized America. Also, French women were not very common, because they did not take to trip from France to America. Because of this it was very common for French men to mingle with African women. Most African women were slaves and so any children conceived were also slaves. These Afro-French children were in a unique situation because their French fathers did not want them to be slaves forever, so their fathers would decide to free them from slavery. The French also had their own slave code called the Code Noir. This was very similar to that slave codes of English settlers. A couple of the laws inside the Code Noir were that interracial marriage was forbidden and that only slave owners could free their slaves. Slaves were not allowed to buy their freedom. Florida was one of the main Spanish colonies in America. Historically, Spanish cultures is tried to religion, specifically Catholicism. Because of this, slaves in Spanish Florida had an opportunity for freedom that many others did not. Any slave that converted to Catholicism would be freed and protected under the religion. Slaves had more choices as far as what type of work they wanted to do. There were several jobs that required back-breaking work, but they could also serve as linguists, guides, and even serve in the Spanish militia. Because of the many Indians in Florida, and the fact that Africans mingled with Indians, slavery was not defined by race in Spanish Florida. Spanish settlers treated slaves better than in English colonies. Part of this was because Spanish law clarified the masters responsibility and the slaves rights. These distinctions were not made in England. Britain held the majority of the colonies in America. These included Virginia, Maryland, South Carolina, and more. The laws concerning slavery were different in each colony, but the main ideas were similar. One of these similarities was a law created concerning children. Any child born in these colonies was to take the title of their mother, either slave or free. This particular law made African women very important to white men. Like with the French, many English women did not travel to America. So it became very common for white men and African women to mingle. As a result, many children were conceived and since it was more than likely that the mother was an African slave, these children were also considered slaves. Another common law was punishment for slaves. While the severity of punishment varied from colony to colony, There were laws put in place that allowed for harsh punishment of slaves for even minor offenses like theft or even being disobedient. South Carolina had some of the most sever punishments for slaves out of all of the colonies. They decided that runaway slaves would be punishable by death, and even offered rewards to individuals who captured runaway slaves. While many colonies assumed this, Virginia made a law in the 1640s stating that slaves were to serve for life. Maryland established a law stating that if a white women and an enslaved black man married, the white women would have to serve the husbands master. Englands colony South Carolina was most know for extreme slave codes. These codes severely limited slaves ability to do what they wanted when their day of work was done. Just to name some of the restrictions, when slaves traveled off of the plantations, they were required to carry a pass given by their owner that said they could be away from the plantation. Also, Runaway slaves, if captured, were brutally beaten, branded, or even bodily mutilated. African slaves had very limited options for freedom, and as time went on, these options became less and less. In the mid 1600s, slaves would runaway to St. Augustine, Florida. If they made it, they would convert the Catholicism and doing this would keep them from having to be a slave again. This option did not last ling though, as St. Augustine was burned down and the slaves safe haven was ruined. The only other realistic way for slaves to gain their freedom was to purchase it. Of course as time went on, the colonies put laws in place such as having to have the owners approval for a slave to become free, or they owner would have to move the newly freed Africans outside of some colonies, if they were to be free. These were some of the very few ways slaves could gain their freedom. Slavery was different in every colony, depending on what country was in control of the colony. There were over arching similarities, but nonetheless, each colony was different, and had its own way of controlling slaves. Freedom was also a difficult thing for slaves to gain, as many options for freedom were deemed illegal by the colonies laws. Overall, this was one of the toughest times for slavery, there was nothing to stop whites from brutally torturing slaves and they had yet to realize that they were abusing human beings that were exactly like them.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Question of Female Citizenship Free Essays

The Question of Female Citizenship Catherine Tupper In the early 1800’s a young man by the name of James Martin was denied by the lower court when he claimed that his deceased mother’s property in the United States was confiscated from his family. After being denied for an appeal in the lower court, James appealed his decision to the Supreme Judicial Court. The problem at conflict in this case was whether or not James mother, Anna, was defined as a feme-covert or as a citizen of The United States. We will write a custom essay sample on The Question of Female Citizenship or any similar topic only for you Order Now This court case was called Martin v. Massachusetts. According to the Source, in eighteenth-century Anglo-America a married women, by law, was known as a feme-covert. A woman considered a feme-covert was completely covered by her husband and had no recognized legal identity. She had no right to buy, sell or own property independently of her husband. In the case of Martin v. Massachusetts, the plaintiff James Martin presented the fact that his late mother left the United States because his father did. In other words, Anna had no choice due to the feme-covert law which states that the man speaks and acts for the wife. The argument made by the ter-tenants was that Anna had the right to stay and claim citizenship due to the fact that all of the land owned by her husband was indeed hers because it was passed down by her father. In the end, the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts ruled that Anna Martin was bound by her marriage vows and had to follow her husband to England. The court reversed the confiscation and the land was returned to the Martin family. Due to the fact that the confiscation of Anna Martin’s property was reversed, the justices stated that women could not act independently of her husband in political or economic matters. How to cite The Question of Female Citizenship, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Ozone Essay Example For Students

Ozone Essay OzoneDanielle FarrarMarch 16, 1997Triatomic oxygen, O3, is most commonly known as ozone. It has aresonance structure, and can be drawn in two different ways:O=O-O-O=OIt is a bluish, explosive gas at room temperature, and has a boiling pointof -119C. It has a melting point of -193C, and is a blue liquid. Itscritical temperature and pressure are -12.1C and 53.8 atm, respectively. Ithas a pleasant odor in concentrations of less than 2 ppm, and is irritating andinjurious in higher concentrations. The density of ozone gas is 2.144 g/L, andthe density of ozone as a liquid is 1.614 g/mL. It is extremely unstable, andsolutions containing ozone explode upon warming. It is found in varyingproportions on Earth, but it is about 0.05 ppm at sea level. Ozone absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation in the upper atmosphere, andprotects humans from skin cancer. But ozone is also the main ingredient of smog,and causes serious health effects and forest and crop damage in the loweratmosphere. Ozone is formed through the chemical reaction of volatile organiccompounds and nitrogen dioxide, in the atmosphere, in the presence of sunlight. This reaction is called a photochemical reaction, because sunlight is required. The product is known as smog. The notorious brownish color of smog is due tonitrogen dioxide of the mixture. Increased temperature stimulate the reaction,which is why ozone conditions are worse in the summer. It is an oxidant,meaning it takes electrons away from other molecules, and disrupts keystructures in cells by starting chain reactions. Ozone is a serious national problem. Half of the largest urban areas inthe United States exceed the ozone standards. The worst regions in the USinclude California and the Texas Gulf coast, and the northeast and the Chicago-Milwaukee area during the summer. The ozone condition varies from year to year,as the temperature and weather fluctuate. This fluctuation also occursthroughout the day, as emissions from morning traffic builds up, the levels rise. Ozone emissions come from many things, such as automobiles, gas stations, powerplants, dry cleaners, paint shops, chemical manufacturing pants, oil refineries,and other business that release volatile organic compounds. The health effects of ozone are chest pain, coughing, wheezing, lung andnasal congestion, labored breathing, sore throat, nausea, rapid breathing, andeye and nose irritation. The symptoms occur when the levels of ozone are onlyslightly higher than the legal standard. Living in San Diego during myelementary school year, I personally felt the effects of ozone; the tightness ofthe chest, wheezing, and labored breathing on certain hot, humid days. Dayswould be labeled smog days, and children wouldnt be able to play outsideduring recess, the air was so polluted. Heavy exercise can drive ozone deeperinto the respiratory system, and interferes with lung operation, and childrengrowing up in smog-polluted areas have been found to have lost 10-15% of theirlung capacity. Ozone severely damages crops, forests, and man-made materials. Thecrops affected are ones such as soybeans, peanuts, corn, and wheat, and moreextensively to tomatoes, beans, snapbeans. Cash losses of these crops areestimated at several billion dollars a year. Evidence points towards the factthat ozone is severely damaging forest in the eastern United States, and ozoneis responsible for the reduced growth rate of commercial yellow pines in thesoutheast U.S. Organisms such as lichens, and ecosystem processes such asnutrient cycling, are also affected. Ozone can also damage materials, such ascausing cracking of plastics and rubber, and decomposition and fading of fibersand dyes. .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5 , .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5 .postImageUrl , .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5 , .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5:hover , .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5:visited , .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5:active { border:0!important; } .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5:active , .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5 .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9d9c347fb06f854395e911c042d03aa5:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Ted Bundy Case Study EssayOzone has been in the news a lot in the past decade or so. Not only theeffects of ozone as smog in the lower atmosphere, but ozone depletion in theupper atmosphere. It seems rather ironic that something we have such anabundance of that it becomes a problem, should also present the problem that weare lacking in it. However, the focus of my research was primarily on smog andthe effects of the lower atmosphere. The health problems presented, the moneylost on crops, and forests, have made ozone quite a prevalent issue, mainlybecause it affects everyone, all over the planet. This invisible gas has andwill continue to be a source of intense interest for scientists in the comingyears. Contributing pollutants such as automobiles, power plants, and other thingsI mentioned previously have led to controversy over these items. Huge amountsof money have been put into research for decreasing the amount of ozone produced. For instance, Los Angeles installed a

Sunday, March 29, 2020

Romeo and Juliet Costumes Essay Example

Romeo and Juliet Costumes Paper I picked this scene for my Costumes because I believe it was the main stepping stone for the rest of the story It pretty much determined the rest of their fate in the whole movie. For Romeo I chose to make Just a plain shirt because what he wore always looked simple but put together. I also dressed him In a pair of tights for the bottoms. For Juliet costume I looked at what was worn throughout both the 1968 movie and the 1996 movie. I also looked through what was worn In the Victorian era which Is hat Romeo and Juliet Is said to have taken place In. I ended up making a dress which looks like what you would averagely seen during that era. For Gullets mother I did the same thing I Just used a pattern that was Just a bit different and a different material. I based her costume off what she would have worn at the party since she wasnt present during the balcony scene which I had used for both Romeo and Gullets costumes. We will write a custom essay sample on Romeo and Juliet Costumes specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Romeo and Juliet Costumes specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Romeo and Juliet Costumes specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Communication barriers between Ghana and Chinese culture Essays

Communication barriers between Ghana and Chinese culture Essays Communication barriers between Ghana and Chinese culture Essay Communication barriers between Ghana and Chinese culture Essay Introduction According to many studies, cross-cultural problems have been some of the most integral and persistent issues that have influenced communications between various cultures. Due to the differences in culture of people, communication is usually proving to be hard and thus not effective. Communication barriers, therefore, are manifest and renders communication between two cultures difficult. Culture is the way we view the world and the set of beliefs by certain people (Varner Beamer, 1995). Various barriers hinder communication between the two cultures-Ghana and Chinese. This research paper seeks to analyze three examples of the barriers from the perspective of cross-cultural communication theory. If ineffective communication occurs between different cultures, it is based on the fact that the communicators dont acknowledge the values of the different cultures. Cross-Cultural Communication theory This theory essentially posits an understanding of how various people from different cultural backgrounds speak, convey information and perceive everything in their environs (Balsmeier Heck, 1994). Cross-Cultural Communication in this context refers to the communication between Chinese and Ghana (Varner Beamer, 1995). This theory is based on the value differences among cultures. The examples of communication barriers between Ghana and Chinese culture are inclusive of but not limited to Language differences, non-verbal misinterpretation, preconceptions and misunderstandings, high anxiety, assumptions of the similarities, discrimination, ethnocentrism, tone differences (Balsmeier Heck, 1994). Language barrier To begin with, language is one of the obvious hindrances to intercultural communications yet maybe not the most integral. Individuals who dont share a language or who feel that they have a poor command of someone elses dialect might have some troubles communicating and imparting. There is likewise the likelihood of false impressions happening between individuals when they dont share a typical dialect. However sharing a common dialect does not ensure understanding. Indeed, even speakers of the same dialect dont have the very same comprehension of the implications and meanings of words (Patel, Li Sooknanan, 2011). Moreover, a Chinese and a Ghanaian would have problems in communicating. The two individuals speak entirely different languages. Various ways in which dialect can be an obstruction to intercultural communications are also the problems of vocabulary, idiomatic, experimental and conceptual equivalences. The absence of vocabulary equivalence happens at the point when there are not words in one dialect that relate precisely to the meaning and importance of words in another language. It happens mainly with particular or extremely illustrative words. Take for instance when a letter written in by a Ghanaian in English to be translated into Chinese with a sentence that reads I wonder if you will set an agenda and a meeting date for our meeting. In this case the word wonder is used as a courteous method of requesting for information from the Chinese on the agenda of the meeting and meeting date, when translated into Chinese it means an entirely different things. It means doubt. When translate d it waters down the courtesy (Patel, Li Sooknanan, 2011). The sentence would thus read I doubt if you will set an agenda and meeting date for our meeting. For this situation, a sentence that means well can result in a great conflict due to the offensive meaning (Phipps, 2013). In several cases, when a Ghanaian speaker communicates in English to a Chinese and uses idiomatic expressions it causes confusion. Even though English is not a native language for both, one individual may be well informed with the idiomatic expressions like a native speaker. Take, for instance, when one says kick the bucket, it means to die. In some cases, it may cause confusion when one of the individuals who comprehend its meaning uses it to express death to the other person who doesnt understand its meaning (Phipps, 2013). Another issue is that of experiential equivalence as mentioned earlier. There are experiences that exist in Chinese culture that do not exist in one Ghanaian culture. This makes them hard to interpret into the dialect of Ghana. For example, the Chinese idea of guanxi has no exact English equivalent in spite of the fact that it has connotations that can be communicated in English words, for example, relationship, association, commitment and reliance (Large, 1983). Conceptual equivalence, on the other hand, becomes a setback for communication if notions or concepts are not well comprehended in similar ways in various cultures. Ghanaians have different concepts of some fundamental and contemporary issues in a way that may appear to be quite divergent as compared to how the Chinese understand the same (Large, 1983). Nonverbal Communication This entails communication without the use of the word by mouth, and it sometimes goes hand in hand with verbal communications to reinforce the meaning of the spoken word. Nonverbal correspondence can be an obstruction to intercultural correspondence between a Chinese and a Ghanaian (Olshin, 2006). Nonverbal communications mostly entail correspondence without words. Messages are sent through motions, gestures, eye contact, and assumptions in regards to time among others. These types of communications can be misinterpreted in most cases. Non-verbal is used in various ways in the two cultures to communicate. Similarly, there is a close similarity of their uses in the two cultures in question. In the Ghana context, most of the non-verbal styles are used to send messages that may be uncomfortable to speak. On the other side, it may be disrespectful to do the same in the Chinese culture. It, therefore, presents the state of confusion for the two to speak in nonverbal skills (Kelley, 1975). Gestures and eye contact have powerful meanings in both cultures. Additionally, there are differences of interpretation of deep indulgence in eye contact by the two cultures. In Ghana, it is a sigh of respect while in Chinese context it may render one restless as it may not be a sign of courtesy. This is a major setback for the two cultures as far as communication is concerned. Silence also has a difference in meaning in the two cultures, and this is a setback for cross-cultural communications (Kelley, 1975). For the Chinese, silence in a conversation means a lot of respect especially if it is from a younger person to an elderly while in Ghana it means shyness and maybe inadequate interest in the conversation. It is another element of cross-cultural communication barrier as the theory stipulates. Another aspect of non-verbal in cross-cultural communication barrier is the touch element. In Chinese culture, it is believed that strangers are not to be greeted and touched, while it is pointless in Ghana. Ethnocentrism It is very normal for one brought up in Ghana to have the values of the community he or she is brought up in, likewise to one brought up in China. It is because of the way the two individuals brought up in these cultures interact and learn from them. Ethnocentrism is the belief of one in his or her culture. It is the sense of focusing on ones own culture in everything one pursues. It is clearly a setback in cross-cultural communications since it offers the basis of one judging other cultures and rendering them to be inferior (Bi et al., 2012). Chinese would have difficulty and challenges in communicating with a Ghanaian if both parties do not have a sense of cross-cultural tolerance towards each other. For example, a Chinese working in Ghana would feel inferior if a Ghanaian looks down upon him (Olshin, 2006). Ethnocentrism, in this case, promotes superiority in the Ghanaian who believes that his culture is superior to the Chinese culture.;This kind of attitude in the Ghanaian affects cross-cultural communication between the Ghanaian and the Chinese (Bi et al., 2012). Strategies on How to Overcome Barriers to Intercultural Communication Today, the world is acknowledged to have become a global village where people communicate from time to time and from place to place irrespective of their location. Also, due to technological advancement, many people from different walks of life have had the opportunity to move from one location to another. The Chinese have been to Ghana due to work related reasons and other reasons. Similar, to Ghanaians, who have found their way to China for one reason or another. As this takes place, the challenges and issues of dealing with cultural differences and utilizing the potential advantages of the diversities become immense. The differences that exist across various cultures have a significant impact on the intercultural communications. It is, therefore, prudent to put strategies that would help reduce and or eliminate the intercultural barriers to communications. Overcoming Language Barrier Speaking slowly and clearly is a way to overcome the language barrier. It entails pronouncing words clearly and profoundly to a party whose first language is not necessarily English. It is advisable to limit loudness in speaking as this merely implies rudeness in most of the cultures like the mentioned above. Speaking in plain language without the use of idiomatic expressions would also help a great deal in making communications clear and precise. Using simple words and avoiding unnecessary information: In this situation, one should use short, simple sentences to disseminate information. Using lengthy explanations usually makes intercultural communication difficult. It even makes it more complicated to use hard, and unnecessary difficult words to explain things. It is also a good strategy to check the meaning of words before using them. It is not prudent to assume the meaning of certain words without considering the context of the other culture. Practicing Active listening This is a proven effective strategy for improving cross-cultural communication.;It is a technique that entails restating the other speakers sentiments to ensure that one grasp and understand their meaning and also, asking regular questions. This method facilitates cross-cultural communication by ensuring that necessary information is understood too. Paying attention to Cultural assumptions If a person travels to a foreign nation, it is quite challenging to cope with the differences that exist in the nonverbal and verbal communications. It is, therefore, advised that when conversing with someone from another culture, one should avoid slang, jokes and or references that could be confusing and misleading to a non-local speaker. Exercising Patience Quite often than not, Cross-cultural communication takes more time. It is the fact that communicating with a person from the same culture takes less time as compared to communicating with someone from a different culture. It is, therefore, of great help to each other when patience is employed while trying to achieve communication with a person from a different culture. Opting for Courteous formality when in doubt. This is the technique and strategy of adopting a polite language when not sure or confident of what to tell a foreigner. Take, for instance, The North American English speakers usually employ an unconventional tactic to talks, especially when they are in talks with a total stranger or addressing new acquaintance. The technique may be off-putting to a person who is from some other cultural setting. To guarantee that youre passing on a proper level of respect, utilize a more formal method of talking and slowly downsize the degree of a convention as the relationship develops. Avoiding Stereotypes For a successful cross-cultural communication, one needs to seek beyond ones background misconception and stereotypes. Stereotypes are usually common among various cultures; they have no grounds and no categorical basis in truth. Making assumptions and general stereotypes only serve to create distrust and create a barrier between the individuals from different cultural backgrounds thus affecting communications. It is noble to treat each and every person with dignity and in equal measure rather than just mere generalizations. Understanding of other peoples values, norms, beliefs free from a prejudicial point of view is fundamental in this essence. Conclusion Ghana and China have different cultural backgrounds. It is these differences in cultural backgrounds that render the two cultures quite different (Olshin, 2006). Communication between two individuals from these two cultures as depicted in this research indicates that there exist various barriers that hinder effective correspondence. These barriers, as seen, are due to the differences as perceived by each from a particular culture. However, several strategies exist that can be put in place to curb and or reduce these barriers to manageable levels as discussed in this research paper above. Cross-cultural communication barriers are thus tackled successfully to achieve a mutual benefit between individuals from different cultural backgrounds. References Balsmeier, P., Heck, A. (1994). Crosscultural Communication. Cross Cultural Management, 1(2), 13-21. Bi, X., Gunessee, S., Hoffmann, R., Hui, W., Larner, J., Ma, Q., Thompson, F. (2012). Chinese consumer ethnocentrism: A field experiment. Journal Of Consumer Behaviour, 11(3), 252-263. Kelley, M. (1975). Non-Verbal and Verbal Communication. The English Journal, 64(1), 72. Large, J. (1983). The foreign-language barrier. London: A. Deutsch. Olshin, B. (2006). Debating the authentic: an outsiders view of West African culture in Ghana. Journal Of Philosophy And Culture, 1(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jpc.v1i2.36449 Patel, F., Li, M., ; Sooknanan, P. (2011). Intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE. Phipps, A. (2013). Intercultural ethics: questions of methods in language and intercultural communication. Language And Intercultural Communication, 13(1), 10-26. Varner, I., ; Beamer, L. (1995). Intercultural communication in the global workplace. Chicago: Irwin.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

International Systems Corporatin Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

International Systems Corporatin - Case Study Example The most significant problems that are affecting the plant include, material cost and a bad co-ordination between Research & Development people and Production engineers. Repeated design changing is making the overall cost higher. Had been designs coming from R & D section go directly for production without any more rectification, cost would have lowered. There is a dispute between R & D and Production peoples. One is blaming the other, which forces me to incorporate one special investigation team to govern actually where the conflict is. One design after coming to Production section does not reserves the right to be changed without proper notification to me. According to the notice sent by Employee & Community Relation Manager, we need to hire women and people of color very soon and make sure a higher percentage will be recruited into Production section which requires more effective manpower. Nothing is born perfect. We have to give the color of perfection. Question is not how effective we are, rather question is how much more we have to be. There must be a good relation among the people in the department as well as within various departments. After getting sure that design is complete and may rule over the market then only materials should be purchased. Otherwise it's immaterial to periodically purchase and change the model structure. To set up good relationship, weekly meetings will be organized where all the in- charges of various sections may come with their ambiguities and questions if any. Other than this, picnic party, cultural activities will help the employees to intermingle. As Baker and Baker is interested for our model 80, so production engineers must do their work to make the product available as soon as possible. After that only other models and multi channel digital system will be carried out. As we are hiring people, later on works can be split up. The product whose design is about to complete; before going to production department, requisites must be sent to material management people. If after purchasing any such modification is required, it should be done showing valid cause before me. Finally, instead of maintaining own records department heads are requested to provide necessary information to the finance authority. Response to Robert Strauss We all know that company is running above the projected expenditure for last few months especially due to higher material cost. I have understood the actual reason behind it. It has been decided, next time onwards prior to sending the design to production department, a list of required materials will be given to your department. And also designers/production peoples are not allowed to change the design so easily ensuring proper utilization of the resources purchased. Model 95 will be told to stall for a moment till model 80 gets done. Another discussion I want to make with you regarding the materials that remain unutilized due to the changing of designs. We will check if